• “A Complete Logic of Ground I: Unilateral Propositions” RSL (R&R)  A proposition is specific just in case there is exactly one way for that proposition to obtain, and one proposition grounds another just in case every way for the former to obtain is a way for the latter to obtain. This paper provides a proof system for a unilateral logic of ground with a specificity operator, establishing soundness and completeness over a state semantics in which propositions are sets of states closed under finite fusion.
  • “A Complete Logic of Ground II: Bilateral Propositions” RSL (R&R)  Having established soundness and completeness for a unilateral logic of ground with a specificity operator in a previous paper, this paper extends these results to a bilateral logic where propositions are closed under infinite fusion. By contrast with the Boolean lattices described by extensional and intensional logics, the space of bilateral propositions forms a non-interlaced bilattice. I will conclude by defining the bilateral notions of essence and ground in terms of unilateral ground.
  • “Identity and Aboutness” JPL This paper develops a theory of propositional identity which distinguishes necessarily equivalent propositions that differ in subject-matter. Rather than forming a Boolean lattice as in extensional and intensional semantic theories, the space of propositions forms a non-interlaced bilattice. After motivating a departure from tradition by way of a number of plausible principles for subject-matter, I will provide a Finean state semantics for a novel theory of propositions, presenting arguments against the convexity and nonvacuity constraints which Fine (Journal of Philosophical Logic4545, 199–226 131415) introduces. I will then move to compare the resulting logic of propositional identity (PI1) with Correia’s (The Review of Symbolic Logic, 9, 103–122 9) logic of generalised identity (GI), as well as the first degree fragment of Angell’s (2) logic of analytic containment (AC). The paper concludes by extending PI1 to include axioms and rules for a subject-matter operator, providing a much broader theory of subject-matter than the principles with which I will begin.


“Formal Foundations for the Logic of Essence and Ground”
Wollheim Society
Berkeley: 21.9.18

“Philosophical Foundations for the Logic of Essence and Ground”
Wollheim Society
Berkeley: 8.9.18

“Grounding and Dependence”
Philiminality (Panel)
Oxford: 4.5.18

“The Logic of Determination”
DPhil Seminar
Oxford: 5.5.17

“Reductionism About Ground”
Oxford: 18.11.16

“Reductionism About Ground”
Grounding Grounding
Alghero: 28.10.16 – 29.10.16

“Grounding on the Cheap”
Pop Grunch
Oxford: 6.6.16

“A Real Definition of Non-Actuality”
Ockham Society
Oxford: 21.10.15

“Early Interpretations of the Barcan Formula”
Women in Early Analytic Philosophy
Ghent: 5.10.15

“Getting Down to the Ground”
Ockham Society
Oxford: 20.11.14



Jowett Society
Oxford: 2016-17

Structure in Metaphysics
Organised with Annina Loets
Oxford: 30.5.2015 – 1.6.2015

Jowett Society
Oxford: 2015-16


MLE Seminar
Oxford: 2015-18

Modal Logic as Metaphysics
Oxford: Trinity 2015

Modal Logic as Metaphysics
Berkeley: Summer 2014

Writing the Book of the World
Harvard/MIT: Spring 2012


Angellic Content
Oxford: 6.11.2015